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IoV: Paving the Way for a Faster, Safer, Richer, Greener Ride

While intended to improve vehicle operations and enrich the driving and riding experience, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), the latest instantiation of the Internet of Things (IoT), has introduced a significant level of management complexity. An IoV-enabled vehicle is equipped with numerous onboard terminal devices and sensors for collecting and sharing data within the vehicle, and externally among other vehicles, people, roadways, and applications. Managing these sensors, interfaces, and wired and mobile communications with public Internet and cloud computing applications creates a formidable challenge. Huawei has designed a comprehensive solution — a versatile platform that’s both connected and private — to unify and tame the IoV.

Security and QoS Challenges

Since the 1960s, the automobile industry has embraced sensor technologies — from simple monitoring of oil pressure and fuel levels to sophisticated fuel injection, anti-lock braking, and air bag systems — all enabled by embedded microprocessors in constant communication with specialized sensors.

Today, the automobile is a rich platform for IP-based features that provide advanced controls to drivers and passengers for safety, entertainment, navigation, and more. We live in an age where driverless cars could become commonplace and transforming personal mobility beyond anything imaginable only a generation ago.

Such fantastic possibilities bring ICT challenges unique to vehicles — both as mobile devices and complex machines with multiple subsystems and hundreds of onboard sensors and terminal devices — interacting with their human cargo, other vehicles, networks and applications, outer surroundings, and posing significant risks due to their mass and speed.

Complex Communications

IoV solutions must address a much broader range of communication issues than faced by phones, tablets, or PCs, as information shared among onboard systems to support vehicle operations will also be shared between drivers in different vehicles, GPS, and an ever-increasing host of onboard and cloud-based services.

Consider the three types of communications and their associated protocol standards:

• Onboard wired — Follows Controller Area Network (CAN) bus standards accepted globally by automobile manufacturers.

• Short-range radio — Includes Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), used for connecting wireless devices and for applications like toll collection and payment of parking fees.

• Various long-range mobile — Includes Wi-Fi and Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), used for fleet management and membership or car club communications, and mobile communications technologies such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), 3G, and LTE/4G.

By protocol type, wired communication methods include CAN bus, twisted pair, and USB; radio communications include GSM/GPRS, CDMA2000/WCDMA/TD-SCDMA, LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, DSRC, Ultra-Wideband (UWB), Bluetooth, Infrared (IR), and satellite communication. Each must be supported, along with new standards and communications types.

Storing, accessing, and sharing data is also required, from unstructured, machine-generated data to various formats defined for GPS, VoIP, texting, Internet browsing, and secure communications.

Security Concerns

As vehicles become smarter and more connected, securing them against data errors and theft becomes a critical challenge. From personal communications to vehicle control and management information, the risks are numerous and the consequences a threat to life and property.

Security methods vary from point-to-point to multipoint communications and must be implemented for the various wireless technologies used for short- and long-range communications. As an example, sensitive data requires data encryption; that for added safety, includes a time-out based authentication step for accessing vehicle management and control functions.

Meeting both functional and performance requirements of comprehensive and granular security for the various communication types is critical to the evolution of IoV, and driverless cars in particular.

Huawei’s IoV Connection Management Platform

To address the complex needs of truly Internet-enabled vehicles, Huawei introduces the IoV Connection Management Platform (CMP). Support for onboard sensors and terminals include:

• Management of all onboard devices, including hardware and firmware upgrades, remote maintenance, and data management.

• Real-time fault diagnostics and alarms, plus dynamic performance management for terminal devices.

• Interfaces and data management for roadside systems such as cameras and IP-based toll collection systems.

To accommodate different onboard and wireless communications and protocols, the CMP implements application-layer protocol conversion supporting Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), and Simple Internet Protocol (SIP) for interfacing with the Internet of Things (IoT). Additionally, intelligent device and sensor addressing ensures that every onboard terminal is assessable to Third-Party Equipment Service Provider (TSP) platforms.

The CMP security module supports registration and authentication for onboard terminals and, separately, for wireless access to password-protected applications and services. Permission-based access rights secure data stored by onboard terminals, as well as personnel and vehicle information.

Access and QoS modules provide flexible access controls, avoid resource conflicts, and manage resources and performance based on QoS levels established by user, device, and service.

By supporting responsive, secure communications between disparate onboard systems, and among vehicles, roadways, people, and applications, the Huawei CMP enables precise and secure data sharing to bring the Internet of Vehicles from concept to reality.

By Fan Yuke

General Manager, Huawei IoV Domain